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1、请穷神

我的老家是冀东北部的一个小山村,过去有许多老乡俗,大年午夜请财神就是其中之一。大年三十吃过年饭,燃放鞭炮,守岁到午夜,然后请财神,家家都派人带着香烛供品到村头大庙里给财神爷焚香磕头,祈求财神爷光临其家,赐其财源广进。
听老辈人讲,很久很久以前,村里有个穷汉叫黑蛋,住着一间漏风的破茅屋,穿着裸胸露背的破衣服,屋里四壁空空。灶间一口破锅,橱内一只豁牙破碗,还有一张三条腿的破饭桌,真是穷得叮当响。黑蛋见家家都请财神,也想把财神爷请到家里来。可是,连一股香一对蜡烛都买不起,两手空空能把财神爷请来?不去请吧,财神爷啥驴年月能想到他黑蛋呀?这穷掉底儿的日子啥时能翻身?思来想去觉得还是要去,在财神爷面前祷告祷告,向财神爷求个情,要是让他发财以后一定加倍孝敬……就这样,黑蛋就空着两手来到村头大庙前。黑蛋正想进庙里给财神爷磕头,猛然瞧见庙台上坐着一个老头在呜呜咽咽地哭。老头蓬头垢面,衣着不整。黑蛋心想准是个讨饭的乞丐,身上无衣,腹内无食,又饿又冷,所以坐在庙台上哭泣。黑蛋就走过去,对老头说:“天这么冷,都到后半夜了,你为啥不进庙里避避寒?”老头说:“我不是为饥寒而哭,是为没人请我、孝敬我才伤心难过……”黑蛋听了觉得挺可笑,就说:“你一个讨饭的乞丐,谁请你?孝敬你何用?”老头说:“实话告诉你,我不是乞丐,我是穷神。人们来来往往都是来给财神烧香磕头的,请财神到他们家里去,没有一个人理我。我穷神好歹也是‘神’,你说我能不伤心吗?”黑蛋一想也是这么个理儿,人穷了没人敬,神仙穷了也没人敬,人咋都这样嫌贫爱富?黑蛋心里就感到与穷神同命相怜了。黑蛋觉得自己空着手来请财神也未必请得动,那财神爷更是个嫌贫爱富的主儿。干脆,就把穷神老儿请到家里一起过个穷年算了,反正穷神也是神,穷不敬穷谁敬穷?于是,黑蛋就对穷神说:“你老人家若不嫌我穷就请到我家里过年,不知老人家愿去不愿去……”穷神说:“有人请我就不错了,哪能嫌你穷?”于是,穷神老儿就跟着黑蛋来到他家里。

黑蛋家里只有一勺面,和上水,又切上一把烂菜帮子做馅,凑湊合合地包了五个饺子。黑蛋把五个饺子放在锅里煮了,刚煮熟捞在破碗里,那穷神老儿就饥不可耐了,狼吞虎咽地全吃下去了!黑蛋只喝了一碗煮饺子汤。那穷神老儿大概是吃得太急呛了,不住地咳嗽,还一口一口地吐痰,过了好一会才不吐了。穷神静静神儿对黑蛋说:“天不早了,我该回去了,你好好休息吧。”穷神老儿说完就走了。黑蛋送走了穷神老儿,心里就有些后悔了,一勺面包了五个饺子全让穷神给吃了,明天大年初一自己吃啥?黑蛋连打了几个唉声便睡了。
第二天大年初一早上,黑蛋起来后瞧见屋地上摆着五个饺子。黑蛋心想,准是那穷神老儿吃得过急连嚼都没嚼,咳咳嗽嗽地又囫囵个儿吐岀来了。黑蛋就想拣起来洗洗自己吃了,他弯下腰一看,哪里是什么饺子,原来是五个银元宝!黑蛋可乐坏了,拣起五个银元宝捧在怀里,那颗心差点儿从嗓子眼儿蹦岀来!黑蛋一边乐着抬头一看,见墙壁上写着几行字:
世人敬富不敬贫,
大年午夜请财神。
黑蛋偏请穷神老,
穷神帮穷送白银!

2、蒲松龄《聊斋志异》简介 蒲松龄的《除日祭穷神

《聊斋志异》是中国著名的志怪小说集,简称《聊斋》,俗名《鬼狐传》,是中国清代著名小说家蒲松龄创作的文言短篇小说集。这本书是蒲松龄在科举不第,久试无果,生活穷困潦倒时创作的。

蒲松龄十九岁就以三试第一的骄傲成绩考中了秀才,可是后来他连续四次参加科举考试都没有中举,到了后来为了生计,只得放弃了继续科考的道路。古时候的文人,从读书开始,大部分人都是为了谋求一个功名,所谓学以致用,说的是用自己学到的知识报效国家。而蒲松龄在科举考试的时候,便开始创作《聊斋志异》这本书,他放弃了科举也没有放弃这本书,甚至一直写到他老。

据说因为创作《聊斋志异》,甚至影响到了蒲松龄的科举考试。当时蒲松龄有一个好友,名叫张笃庆,他发现蒲松龄因为写《聊斋志异》而分去了大部分精力,以致不能好好准备科举考试,因此作了一首诗劝他。诗里有一句“聊斋且莫竞谈空”,意思就是让他不要写书了,赶紧准备科举考试吧!但是蒲松龄并没有放弃,仍然坚持创作《聊斋》。

蒲松龄创造《聊斋志异》,还有一个故事。据说蒲松龄为了收集到足够的故事,便在路边摆了一个摊子,凡是能讲出他需要的好故事的人,可以免费喝茶(也有说是烟草的)。虽然后来学者有考证证实,这个故事并不是真的,毕竟蒲松龄家里穷成那样,哪儿有闲钱干这事儿呀!但是也足够说明他在创作《聊斋志异》方面,所付出的精力。

关于蒲松龄创作素材的由来,小编猜测,一部分是从旁人处听来的,一部分应该就是自己的想象了。蒲松龄所处的时代,是明末清初,国家的交替,奇闻怪事必定不少。而他自己也常常去找自己的朋友,收集他们的故事。另外一部分,你看蒲松龄创作的许多小说,都是讲的书生和美颜的女妖之间的故事。穷困的书生在屋里读书,美颜的女妖上门,仿佛贤惠的妻子,一夜春风,处处照拂。

《聊斋志异》全书共有8卷,共计491篇。题材广泛,内容丰富,艺术成就很高。作品成功地塑造了众多的艺术典型,人物形象鲜明生动,故事情节曲折离奇,结构布局严谨巧妙,文笔简练,描写细腻,堪称文言短篇小说的巅峰之作。另外他以幽冥界之事,写现实的黑暗,手法巧妙,所作批判让人称赞。郭沫若赞其:“写鬼写妖高人一等,刺贪刺虐入骨三分。”

《除日祭穷神文》

穷神,穷神,我与你有何亲,兴腾腾的门儿 你不去寻,偏把我的门儿进?难道说,这是你的衙门,居住不动身?你就是世袭在此,也该别处权权印;我就是你贴身的家丁、护驾的将军,也 该放假宽限施施恩。你为何步步把我跟,时时 不离身,鳔粘胶合,却像个缠热了的情人?

穷神!自从你进了我的门,我受尽无限窘,万般不如意,百事不趁心,朋友不上门,居住在闹市无人问。我纵有通天的手段,满腹的经纶,腰里无钱难撑棍。你着我包内无丝毫,你着我囊中无半文,你着我断困绝粮,衣服俱当尽,你着我客 来难留饭,不觉的遍体生津,人情往往耽误,假装不知不闻。明知债账是苦海,无奈何,上门打户去求人;开白、五分行息,说什么奉旨三分,到限期立时要完,不依欠下半文。无奈何,忍气吞声,背地里恨。自沉吟:我想那前辈古人也受贫,你看那乞食的郑元和,休妻的朱买臣,住破窑的吕蒙正,锥刺股的苏秦。我只有他前半截的遭际,那有他后半截的时运?可恨我终身酸丁,皆被你穷神混!难道说,你奉玉帝敕旨,佛爷的牒文,摆下了穷神阵把我困?若不然,那膏粱子弟,富贵儿孙,你怎么不敢去近?财神与我有何仇?我与足下有何亲?您二位易地皆然,我全不信。

今日一年尽,明朝是新春,化纸钱,烧金银,奠酒浆,把香焚。我央你离了我的门,不怪你弃旧迎新。

Introduce:" different of annals talking about fast " it is China famous annals blames novel market, abbreviation " Liao Zhai " , local name " ghost fox is passed " , it is Chinese Qing Dynasty the market of classical Chinese short story that Pu Songling of acting famous fictionist creates. This book is Pu Songling in imperial examinations not, long try without if really, create when the life is out at the elbows. Pu Songling 19 years old with 3 in trying first pride achievement to take an examination of scholar, but he is successive later,lift, arrived later for bread, was obliged to abandon continueing the road of division take an examination ofing. In ancient time bookman, from read begin, major person is for seek a scholarly honour and official rank, so-called study for the purpose of application, those who say is to use the knowledge that he acquire to render service to repay kindness country. And Pu Songling takes an exam in imperial examinations when, begin to create " different of annals talking about fast " this book, he abandoned imperial examinations also abandoning this book, write him all the time even old. Allegedly because create " different of annals talking about fast " , the imperial examinations that affected Pu Songling even takes an exam. Pu Songling has a good friend at that time, be called Zhang Duqing, because write,he discovers Pu Songling " different of annals talking about fast " and cent went major energy, as a result cannot prepare imperial examinations to take an exam well, because this made a poetry,persuade him. There is in the poem " Liao Zhai and Mo Jing talks empty " , the meaning lets him do not write a book namely, prepare imperial examinations to take an exam rapidly! But Pu Songling did not abandon, still insist to create " Liao Zhai " . Pu Songling is created " different of annals talking about fast " , still have a story. Allegedly Pu Songling arrives to collect ample old practice, placed a vendor's stand in roadside, always can tell the person that gives the good old practice that he needs, lest expend,can drink tea (also have saying is tobacco) . Although the scholar has textual research to confirm later, this story is not true, become thoroughly in Home Pu Songling after all in that way, where has spare cash to do this thing! But enough also specification he is being created " different of Liao Zhai annals " respect, gives energy. Create the origin of material about Pu Songling, small make up guess, one part is listen from other people place come, the imagination that should be oneself partly. Pu Songling's located times, it is Ming Moqing first, of the country alternant, anecdote oddity is sure many. And the friend that he himself also often looks for himself, collect their story. Additionally one part, you read a lot of novels of Pusong age creation, it is the story between the succubus of the student He Meiyan that tell. Destitute student reads in house, the succubus of United States colour comes, as if virtuous wife, one night spring breeze, look after everywhere. " different of annals talking about fast " whole book shares 8, add up to 491. Subject matter is extensive, content is rich, artistic achievement is very high. Work portrayed numerous artistic pattern successfully, figure figure is bright and vivid, story plot is labyrinthian and bizarre, structure

  
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